### How To

# How to Protect Car from Rats | Simple DIY Ways

Cars are linked to a culture of waste and sloth. Rats are very annoying creatures that can bite away a lot of your precious belongings. Rats like dark and warm places to hide. Cars are **dark **and **warm places** that make perfect hiding places for rats. They enter car cabins in search of food. Rats perform unthinkable acts in unimaginable places and cleaning up their mess that will cost you an unbelievable **amount of money**. They will find their way in under the car hood or through the air duct. Apart from the interiors of a car, rats are more often found in the u8nnoticed places like **engine bay**, seat cushions, behind the battery, between the headlamps and the radiator, underbodies, wheel arches and between the firewall and the engine block. Rats can enter through the **fresh-air vents** of the A.C or the rubber grommets on the firewall. Here we were given some tips to protect your car from rats.

**Read also Mercedes Maybach India | Vision Mercedes-Maybach Ultimate Luxury SUV Unveiled**

## Steps to Protect Car from Rats

- Observe your car’s engine closely, at least once a week by opening the bonnet, either in a
**daylight**or under a strong inspection light. - Check the corners of your car whether there are any stains left by
**rat urine, rat droppings, small plastic pieces, rat footprints**on the engine cover etc. Then, at a service center, get the engine bay thoroughly cleaned. - Clean out the car, and the
**parking area**regularly. Rats enter car cabins in search of food. So always ensure that your car cabin doesn’t have anything edible in it. Always remove all foodstuff from your car. Remove any nearby source of water.

**Read also Top 5 Best Wireless and Wired CCTV Cameras in India**

- Keep
**trap boxes**under the car in one to two places, trap them and throw it far from your house. - If you park a car in a garage or in the basement of your apartment, just spray
**undiluted phenyl**in your engine bay which too repels rats. - Place a proven
**rodent repellent**in the vehicle’s cab and trunk and under the car hood to drive away rats. - Another great remedy is raw tobacco. Buy
**Tobacco bars**and keep it in under bonnet (or wherever is required) in 4 to 5 places. This will ensure rats are not attracted to the car.

Thank you for Reading.

### How To

# No More Spot Fines | How to Pay Traffic Fine Online

**No More Spot Fines | How to Pay Traffic Fine Online**: The **Chennai city traffic police** have launched a cashless payment system to help traffic violators pay fine without trouble. The police officials are attempting to keep pace with the **‘Digital India’** movement, as they will now allow violators to pay fines through debit/credit cards, Paytm or the customized **SBI** online applications. Additional Commissioner of Police (Traffic) A Arun reported that public not to pay cash to police for spot fines and asked them to inform higher authorities if such a practice persisted.

Police Commissioner AK Viswanathan launched this new system and gave away the necessary equipment to traffic policemen. Make payments online through the web portal of **State Bank of India**, and also, the fine can be paid through the **Paytm mobile app** using a relevant QR Code.

**Read also Aadhaar Card May Become Mandatory For Booking Train Tickets Online**

People can make cash payments at **post offices, e-Seva centers**, and respective** courts** and the receipt should be produced at nearby traffic official within **48 hours**.

The service is currently introduced in Chennai and will be expanded to other cities very soon. Last year alone, traffic police claim to have collected **Rs.25 crore** as the fine amount from violators. In 2018, **Rs.12 crore** has been collected until July.

**Read also Link Aadhaar Card To PAN Card | Mobile | Bank**

## How to Pay Traffic Fine Online through Paytm

- To pay the vehicle challan online, firstly open the
**Paytm Application**. - In the Home Screen of the application, a number of services will be listed. Expand the view all arrow.

- Search for
**“Challan”**option which has an icon of Traffic signal. - Click the challan feature and it asks for the traffic authority that is to which region you belong.

**Read also How to Apply PAN Card Online using NDSL and UTIITSL**

- In the next field, enter the
**vehicle number**. - And in the third field, enter the
**Challan ID**and click ‘**Proceed**‘.

- The application will show the fine amount to pay and the
**e-receipt**will be provided.

or

You can also **Pay Traffic fine online** by clicking this link **https://paytm.com/challan-bill-payment **and by entering the necessary details.

**Read also How to Check PAN Card Details using PAN Number | Name & DOB | Address**

## How to Pay Traffic Fine Online

**Step 1:** Enter your username and password on SBI account and login to your Online Banking profile.

**Step 2:** Select the** Pay** tab.

**Step 3:** Select the Menu on the left.

**Step 4:** Select the **Traffic fines** under Additional Services.

**Step 5:** Select an account to pay from, and enter the vehicle number.

**Step 6:** Select the Search for fine button.

**Step 7:** Review the confirmation screen and select the **Confirm** button.

**Step 8:** Enter your **One Time PIN** and click Submit.

**Step 9:** A screen will display the result of the payment. Click Finish button to return to the Payments landing page.

Click here for **More Updates**

### Education

# GATE Exam Syllabus | Branch Wise Syllabus for GATE Exam

GATE Exam Syllabus is entirely based on your** disciplines studied** in the qualifying examination. The **Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati** has specified all the syllabus according to the **23 papers**, with that this examination is conducted for M.Tech programmes. Now, this year syllabus is similar to the previous year. Mostly, the national level **PG engineering** entrance exam will be conducted in February. Once before they start studying for the exam, the candidates have to go through the syllabus of the paper that they appear for. The syllabus that is given for this year has coved all the topics that used to qualify for the entrance exam. Moreover, all the candidates have to appear in the **GATE Exam** appropriate to the discipline of their qualifying degree. There is no common syllabus for all disciplines each, and every discipline has separate Syllabus which are given below.

## GATE Exam Syllabus

- GATE CSE Syllabus
- GATE EEE Syllabus
- GATE ECE Syllabus
- GATE Civil Syllabus
- GATE Mechanical Syllabus
- GATE IE Syllabus

## GATE CSE Syllabus

The GATE Syllabus for CSE disciplines is given below, where it is used here for covering all the topics that require for qualifying the GATE Exam are given here. Once before preparing for your GATE Exam go through the Syllabus of your department.

### Engineering Mathematics

**Discrete Mathematics**

Propositional and first-order logic. Sets, relations, functions, partial orders and lattices. Groups. Graphs: connectivity, matching, colouring. Combinatorics: counting, recurrence relations, generating functions.

**Linear Algebra**

Matrices, determinants, the system of linear equations, eigenvalues and eigenvectors, LU decomposition.

**Calculus**

Limits, continuity and differentiability. Maxima and minima. Mean value theorem. Integration.

**Probability**

Random variables. Uniform, normal, exponential, Poisson and binomial distributions. Mean, median, mode and standard deviation. Conditional probability and Bayes theorem.

### Computer Science and Information Technology

**Digital Logic**

Boolean algebra. Combinational and sequential circuits. Minimization. Number representations and computer arithmetic (fixed and floating point).

**Computer Organization and Architecture**

Machine instructions and addressing modes. ALU, data?path and control unit. Instruction pipelining. Memory hierarchy: main memory, cache, and secondary storage; I/O interface (Interrupt and DMA mode).

**Programming and Data Structures**

Programming in C. Recursion. Arrays, stacks, queues, linked lists, trees, binary search trees, binary heaps, graphs.

**Algorithms**

Searching, sorting, hashing. Asymptotic worst-case time and space complexity. Algorithm design techniques: greedy, dynamic programming and divide?and?conquer. Graph search, minimum spanning trees, shortest paths.

**Theory of Computation**

Regular expressions and finite automata. Context-free grammars and push-down automata. Regular and context-free languages, pumping lemma. Turing machines and undecidability.

**Compiler Design**

Lexical analysis, parsing, syntax-directed translation. Runtime environments. Intermediate code generation.

**Operating System**

Processes, threads, inter? Process communication, concurrency and synchronization. Deadlock. CPU scheduling. Memory management and virtual memory. File systems.

**Databases**

ER?model. Relational model: relational algebra, tuple calculus, SQL. Integrity constraints,

normal forms. File organization, indexing (e.g., B and B+ trees). Transactions and concurrency control.

**Computer Networks**

The concept of layering. LAN technologies (Ethernet). Flow and error control techniques,

switching. IPv4/IPv6, routers and routing algorithms (distance vector, link state). TCP/UDP and sockets, congestion control. Application layer protocols (DNS, SMTP, POP, FTP, HTTP). Basics of Wi-Fi. Network security: authentication, basics of a public key and private key cryptography, digital signatures and certificates, firewalls.

## GATE EEE Syllabus

The GATE Syllabus for EEE disciplines is given below, where it is used here for covering all the topics that require for qualifying the GATE Exam are given here. Once before preparing for your GATE Exam go through the Syllabus of your department.

### Engineering Mathematics

**Linear Algebra**

Matrix Algebra, Systems of linear equations, Eigen values and eigenvectors.

**Calculus**

Mean value theorems, Theorems of integral calculus, Evaluation of definite and improper integrals, Partial Derivatives, Maxima and minima, Multiple integrals, Fourier series. Vector identities, Directional derivatives, Line, Surface and Volume integrals, Stokes, Gauss and Green’s theorems.

**Differential equations**

First order equation (linear and nonlinear), Higher order linear differential equations with constant coefficients, Method of variation of parameters, Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations, Initial and boundary value problems, Partial Differential Equations, Method of separation of variables

**Complex variables**

Analytic functions, Taylor’s and Laurent’ series, Cauchy’s integral theorem and integral formula, Residue theorem, solution integrals.

**Probability and Statistics**

Sampling theorems, Conditional probability, Mean, median, mode and standard deviation, Random variables, Discrete and continuous distributions, Poisson, Normal and Binomial distribution, Correlation and regression analysis.

**Numerical Methods**

Solutions of non-linear algebraic equations, single and multi-step methods for differential equations.

**Transform Theory**

Fourier transform, Laplace transform, Z-transform

### Electrical Engineering

**Electric Circuits**

Network graph, KCL, KVL, Node and Mesh analysis, Transient response of dc and ac networks, Sinusoidal steady? State analysis, Resonance, Passive filters, Ideal current and voltage sources, Thevenin’s theorem, Norton’s theorem, Superposition theorem, Maximum power transfer theorem, Two?port networks, Three phase circuits, Power and power factor in ac circuits.

**Electromagnetic Fields**

Coulomb’s Law, Electric Field Intensity, Electric Flux Density, Gauss’s Law, Divergence, Electric field and potential due to the point, line, plane and spherical charge distributions, Effect of the dielectric medium, Capacitance of simple configurations, Biot?Savart’s law, Ampere’s law, Curl, Faraday’s law, Lorentz force, Inductance, Magnetomotive force, Reluctance, Magnetic circuits, Self and Mutual inductance of simple configurations.

**Signals and Systems**

Representation of continuous and discrete-time signals; Scaling and shifting operations; Fourier series representation of continuous periodic signals; linear, time-invariant and causal systems; sampling theorem; Fourier, Laplace and Z transforms.

**Electrical Machines**

Single phase transformer: equivalent circuit, phasor diagram, open circuit and short circuit Tests, regulation and efficiency; Three phase transformers: connections, parallel operation; Auto? Transformer, Electromechanical energy conversion principles, DC machines: separately excited, series and shunt, motoring and generating mode of operation and starting and speed control of dc motors, and their characteristics; Three phase induction motors: principle of operation, types, performance, torque-speed characteristics, no-load and blocked rotor tests, starting, equivalent circuit and speed control; Operating principle of single phase induction motors; Synchronous machines: cylindrical and salient pole machines, regulation, performance and parallel operation of generators, starting of synchronous motor, characteristics; Types of efficiency and Losses calculations of electric machines.

**Power Systems**

Power generation concepts, ac and dc transmission concepts, Models and performance of transmission lines and cables, Series and shunt compensation, Electric field distribution and insulators, Distribution systems, Per?unit quantities, Bus admittance matrix, GaussSeidel and Newton-Raphson load flow methods, Voltage and Frequency control, Power factor correction, Symmetrical components, Symmetrical and unsymmetrical fault analysis, Principles of over? Current, differential and distance protection; Circuit breakers, System stability concepts, Equal area criterion.

**Control Systems**

Mathematical modelling and representation of systems, Feedback principle, transfer function, Block diagrams and Signal flow graphs, Transient and Steady?state analysis of linear time-invariant systems, Routh-Hurwitz and Nyquist criteria, Bode plots, Root loci, Stability analysis, Lag, Lead and Lead?Lag compensators; P, PI and PID controllers; State space model, State transition matrix.

**Electrical and Electronic Measurements**

Bridges and Potentiometers, Measurement of voltage, current, power, energy and power factor; Instrument transformers, Digital voltmeters and multimeters, Phase, Time and Frequency measurement; Oscilloscopes, Error analysis.

**Analog and Digital Electronics**

Characteristics of diodes, BJT, MOSFET; Simple diode circuits: clamping, clipping, rectifiers; Amplifiers: Biasing, Equivalent circuit and Frequency response; Oscillators and Feedback, amplifiers; Operational amplifiers: Characteristics and applications; Simple active filters, VCOs and Combinational, Timers, and Sequential logic circuits, Multiplexer, Demultiplexer, Sample, Schmitt trigger and hold circuits, A/D and D/A converters, 8085Microprocessor: Architecture, Interfacing and Programming

**Power Electronics**

Characteristics of semiconductor power devices: Diode, Thyristor, Triac, GTO, MOSFET, IGBT; DC to DC conversion: Buck, Boost and Buck-Boost converters; Single and three phase configuration of uncontrolled rectifiers, Line commutated thyristor-based converters, Bidirectional ac to dc voltage source converters, Issues of line current harmonics, Power factor, Distortion factor of ac to dc converters, Single phase and three phase inverters, Sinusoidal pulse width modulation.

## GATE ECE Syllabus

The GATE Syllabus for ECE disciplines is given below, where it is used here for covering all the topics that require for qualifying the GATE Exam are given here. Once before preparing for your GATE Exam go through the Syllabus of your department.

### Engineering Mathematics

**Linear Algebra**

Vector space, basis, linear dependence and independence, matrix algebra, eigenvalues and eigenvectors, rank, the solution of linear equations – existence and uniqueness.

**Calculus**

Mean value theorems, theorems of integral calculus, evaluation of definite and improper integrals, partial derivatives, maxima and minima, multiple integrals, line, surface and volume integrals, Taylor series.

**Differential equation**

First order equations (linear and nonlinear), higher order linear differential equations, Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations, methods of solution using the variation of parameters, complementary function and particular integral, partial differential equations, variable separable method, initial and boundary value problems.

**Vector Analysis**

Vectors in plane and space, vector operations, gradient, divergence and curl, Gauss’s, Green’s and Stoke’s theorems.

**Complex Analysis**

Analytic functions, Cauchy’s integral theorem, Cauchy’s integral formula; Taylor’s and Laurent’s series, residue theorem.

**Numerical Methods**

The solution of nonlinear equations, single and multi-step methods for differential equations, convergence criteria.

**Probability and Statistics**

Mean, median, mode and standard deviation; combinatorial probability, probability distribution functions – binomial, Poisson, exponential and normal; Joint and conditional probability; Correlation and regression analysis.

### Electronics and Communication Engineering

**Networks, Signals and Systems**

Network solution methods: nodal and mesh analysis; Network theorems: superposition, Thevenin and Norton’s, maximum power transfer; Wye?Delta transformation; Steady state sinusoidal analysis using phasors; Time domain analysis of simple linear circuits; Solution of network equations using Laplace transform; Frequency domain analysis of RLC circuits; Linear 2?port network parameters: transfer function and driving point; State equations for the network.

Continuous-time signal: Fourier transform and Fourier series representations, sampling theorem and applications; Discrete-time signals: discrete-time Fourier transform (DTFT), DFT, FFT, Z-transform, LTI systems: definition and properties, interpolation of discrete-time signals causality, stability, impulse response, convolution, poles and zeros, parallel and cascade structure, group delay, phase delay, frequency response, digital filter design technique.

**Electronic Device**

Energy band in intrinsic and extrinsic silicon; Carrier transport: drift, the diffusion current, resistivity and current mobility; Generation and recombination of carriers; Poisson and continuity equations; P-N junction,BJT, MOS capacitor, Zener diode, MOSFET, LED, a photodiode and solar cell; Integrated circuit fabrication process: oxidation, diffusion, ion implantation, photolithography and twin-tub CMOS process.

**Analog Circuits**

Small signal equivalent circuits of diodes, BJTs and MOSFETs; Simple diode circuits: clipping, clamping and rectifiers; Single-stage BJT and MOSFET amplifiers: biasing, bias stability, mid-frequency small signal analysis and frequency response; BJT and MOSFET amplifiers: multi-stage, differential, feedback, power and operational; Simple op-amp circuits; Active filters; Sinusoidal oscillators: criterion for oscillation, single-transistor and op-amp configurations; Function generators, wave-shaping circuits and 555 timers; Voltage reference circuits; Power supplies: ripple removal and regulation.

**Digital circuits**

Number systems; Combinatorial circuits: Boolean algebra, minimization of functions using Boolean identities and Karnaugh map, logic gates and their static CMOS implementations, arithmetic circuits, code converters, multiplexers, decoders and PLAs; Sequential circuits: latches and flip?flops, counters, shift?registers and finite state machines; Data converters: sample and hold circuits, ADCs and DACs; Semiconductor memories: ROM, SRAM, DRAM; 8-bit microprocessor (8085): architecture, programming, memory and I/O interfacing.

**Control Systems**

Basic control system components; Feedback principle; Transfer function; Block diagram representation; Signal flow graph; Transient and steady-state analysis of LTI systems; Frequency response; Routh-Hurwitz and Nyquist stability criteria; Bode and root-locus plots; Lag, lead and lag-lead compensation; State variable model and solution of state equation of LTI systems.

**Communications**

Random processes: autocorrelation and power spectral density, filtering of random signals through LTI systems, properties of white noise; Analog communications: amplitude modulation and demodulation, angle modulation and demodulation, spectra of AM and FM, superheterodyne receivers, circuits for analog communications; Information theory: entropy, mutual information and channel capacity theorem; Digital communications: PCM, DPCM, digital modulation schemes, amplitude, phase and frequency shift keying

(ASK, PSK, FSK), QAM, MAP and ML decoding, matched filter receiver, calculation of bandwidth, SNR and BER for digital modulation; Fundamentals of error correction, Hamming codes; Timing and frequency synchronization, inter-symbol interference and its mitigation; Basics of TDMA, FDMA and CDMA.

**Electromagnetics**

Electrostatics; Maxwell’s equations: differential and integral forms and their interpretation,

boundary conditions, wave equation, Poynting vector; Plane waves and properties: reflection and refraction, polarization, phase and group velocity, propagation through various media, skin depth; Transmission lines: equations, characteristic impedance, impedance matching, impedance transformation, S-parameters, Smith chart;

Waveguides: modes, boundary conditions, cut-off frequencies, dispersion relations; Antennas: antenna types, radiation pattern, gain and directivity, return loss, antenna arrays; Basics of radar; Light propagation in optical fibres.

## GATE Civil Syllabus

The GATE Syllabus for Civil disciplines is given below, where it is used here for covering all the topics that require for qualifying the GATE Exam are given here. Once before preparing for your GATE Exam go through the Syllabus of your department.

### Engineering Mathematics

**Linear Algebra**

Systems of linear equations, Matrix algebra, Eigenvalues and Eigen Vectors.

**Calculus**

Functions of single variable; Continuity, Limit,and differentiability; Local maxima, Mean value theorems, and minima, Taylor and Maclaurin series; Evaluation of the definite and indefinite integrals, The application of definite integral to obtain area and volume; Partial derivatives; Total derivative; Divergence, Gradient,and Curl, Vector identities, Line, Directional derivatives, Surface and Volume integrals, Stokes, Green’s theorems and Gauss.

**Ordinary Differential Equation **

First order linear and non-linear equations; higher order linear equations with constant coefficients; Euler-Cauchy equations; Laplace transform and its application in solving linear Ordinary Differential Equations; initial and boundary value problems.

**Partial Differential Equation**

Fourier series; separation of variables; solutions of one-dimensional diffusion equation; first and second order one-dimensional wave equation and two-dimensional Laplace equation.

**Complex variables**

Analytic functions, Cauchy’s integral theorem, Taylor and Laurent series. Probability and Statistics: Definitions of probability and sampling theorems, Conditional probability, Mean, median, mode and standard deviation, Random variables, Poisson, Normal and Binomial distributions.

**Probability and Statistics**

Definitions of Sampling and probability theorems; Conditional probability; Discrete Random variables: Binomial distributions and Poisson; Continuous random variables, normal and exponential distributions, The Descriptive statistic operations – Mean, median, mode, Hypothesis testing and standard deviation.

**Numerical Method**

Accuracy and precision; error analysis. The numerical solutions of linear and non-linear algebraic equation; Least square approximation, Newton and numerical differentiation, Lagrange polynomial Integration by trapezoidal and Simpson’s rule, single and multi-step methods for first order differential equations.

### Structural Engineering

**Engineering Mechanics**

The system of forces, free-body diagrams, equilibrium equations; Internal forces in structures; Friction and its applications; Kinematics of a point mass and rigid body; Centre of mass; Euler’s equations of motion; Impulse-momentum; The energy methods; Principle of virtual work.

**Solid Mechanic**

Bending moment, shear force in the statically determinate beams; strain relationship and Shear Stress; Theories of failures; Simple bending theory, flexural and the shear stresses, shear centre, Uniform torsion, combined, buckling of column, and the direct bending stresses.

**Structural Analysis**

Statically determinate and indeterminate structures by the force or energy methods; Method of superposition; Analysis of trusses, arches, beams, cables and frames; Displacement methods: Slope deflection and moment distribution methods; Influence lines; Stiffness and flexibility methods of structural analysis.

**Construction Material and Management**

Construction Materials: Structural steel – composition, properties, material and behaviour; Concrete – Bricks and mortar; Timber; Bitumen and constituents, mix design, short-term and long-term properties. Construction Management: Types of construction projects; Tendering and construction contracts; Cost estimation; Rate analysis and standard specifications; Project planning and network analysis – PERT and CPM.

**Concrete Structures**

Working stress, Limit state and Ultimate load design concepts; Design of beams, slabs, columns; Prestressed concrete; Bond and development length; Analysis of beam sections at transfer and server load.

**Steel Structures**

Working stress and Limit state design concept; Design of tension and compression members, beams and beam-columns, column bases; Connections – simple and eccentric, beam-column connections, plate girders and trusses; Plastic analysis of beams and frames.

### Geotechnical Engineering

**Soil Mechanics**

Origin of soils, soil structure and fabric; Three-phase system and phase relationships, index properties; Unified and Indian standard soil classification system; Permeability – one dimensional flow, Darcy’s law; Seepage through soils – two-dimensional flow, flow nets, uplift pressure, piping; Principle of effective stress, capillarity, seepage force and quicksand condition; Compaction in laboratory and field conditions; One-dimensional consolidation, time rate of consolidation; Mohr’s circle, stress paths, effective and total shear strength parameters, characteristics of clays and sand.

**Foundation Engineering**

Sub-surface investigations – scope, drilling bore holes, sampling, plate load test, standard penetration and cone penetration tests; Earth pressure theories – Rankine and Coulomb; Stability of slopes finite and infinite slopes, method of slices and Bishop’s method; Stress distribution in soils – Boussinesq’s and Westergaard’s theories, pressure bulbs; Shallow foundations – Terzaghi’s and Meyerhoff’s bearing capacity theories, effect of water table; Combined footing and raft foundation; Contact pressure; Settlement analysis in sands and clays; Deep foundations – types of piles, dynamic and static formulae, load capacity of piles in sands and clays, pile load test, negative skin friction.

### Water Resources Engineering

**Fluid Mechanics**

Properties of fluids, fluid statics; Continuity, momentum, energy and corresponding equations; Potential flow, applications of momentum and energy equations; Laminar and turbulent flow; Flow in pipes, pipe networks; Concept of the boundary layer and its growth.

**Hydraulics**

Forces on immersed bodies; Flow measurement in channels and pipes; Dimensional analysis and hydraulic similitude; Kinematics of flow, velocity triangles; Basics of hydraulic machines, specific speed of pumps and turbines; Channel Hydraulics – Energy-depth relationships, specific energy, critical flow, slope profile, hydraulic jump, uniform flow and gradually varied flow.

**Hydrology**

Hydrologic cycle, precipitation, evaporation, evapotranspiration, watershed, infiltration, unit hydrographs, hydrograph analysis, flood estimation and routing, reservoir capacity, reservoir and channel routing, surface run-off models, groundwater hydrology – steady state well hydraulics and aquifers; Application of Darcy’s laws.

**Irrigation**

Duty, delta, estimation of evapotranspiration; Crop water requirements; Design of lined and unlined canals, head works, gravity dams and spillways; Design of weirs on the permeable foundation; Types of irrigation systems, irrigation methods; Water logging and drainage; Canal regulatory works, cross-drainage structures, outlets and escapes.

### Environmental Engineering

**Water and Waste Water**

Quality standards, basic unit operations and processing for water treatment. Primary, secondary and tertiary treatment of waste of water, effluent discharge standard. Sewage and sewerage treatment, quantity and characteristics of wastewater. Domestic wastewater treatment, the number of characteristics of domestic wastewater, primary and secondary treatment. Drinking water standards, water requirements, basic unit operations and unit processes for surface water treatment, distribution of water. Unit operations and unit processes of the domestic waste of water, sludge disposal.

**Air Pollution**

Types of pollutants, and their sources and impacts, air pollution meteorology, air pollution control, air quality standards and limits.

**Municipal Solid Waste**

Characteristics, collection, generation and transportation of solid wastes, engineered systems for solid waste management reuse or energy recovery, recycle, treatment and disposal

**Noise Pollution**

Impacts of noise, measurement of noise, permissible limits of noise pollution and control of noise pollution.

### Transportation Engineering

**Transportation Infrastructure**

Highway alignment and engineering surveys; Geometric design of railway track; Airport runway length, taxiway and exit taxiway design; Geometric design of highways – cross-sectional elements, sight distances, horizontal and vertical alignments.

**Highway Pavements**

Highway materials – desirable properties and quality control tests; Design factors for flexible and rigid pavements; Design of bituminous paving mixes; Distresses in concrete pavements; Design of flexible pavement using IRC: 37-2012; Design of rigid pavements using IRC: 58-2011.

**Traffic Engineering**

Microscopic and macroscopic parameters of traffic flow, fundamental relationships; Control devices, signal design by Webster’s method; Types of intersections and channelization; Traffic studies on flow, speed, travel time – delay and O-D study, PCU, peak hour factor, parking study, accident study and analysis, statistical analysis of traffic data; Highway level and capacity of service of rural highway and urban road.

**Geomatics Engineering**

Principles of surveying; Errors and their adjustment; Maps – scale, coordinate system; Distance and angle measurement – Levelling and trigonometric levelling; Traversing and triangulation survey; Total station; Horizontal and vertical curves. Photogrammetry – scale, flying height; Remote sensing – basics, platform and sensors, visual image interpretation; Basics of Geographical information system (GIS) and Geographical Positioning system (GPS).

## GATE Mechanical Syllabus

The GATE Syllabus for Mechanical disciplines is given below, where it is used here for covering all the topics that require for qualifying the GATE Exam are given here. Once before preparing for your GATE Exam go through the Syllabus of your department.

### Engineering Mathematics

**Linear Algebra**

Matrix Algebra, Eigenvalues, Systems of linear equations and Eigenvectors.

**Calculus**

Functions of single variable, limit, continuity and differentiability, mean value theorems, indeterminate forms; double and triple integrals; evaluation of definite and improper integrals; partial derivatives, total derivative, Taylor series (in one and two variables), maxima and minima, Fourier series; vector identities, directional derivatives, line, gradient, divergence and curl, surface and volume integrals, applications of Gauss, Stokes and Green’s theorems.

**Differential equations**

First order equations linear and nonlinear; Euler-Cauchy equation; initial and boundary value problems; linear differential equations with constant coefficients; higher order linear differential equations with constant coefficients; The Laplace transform; solutions of heat, wave and Laplace’s equations.

**Complex variables**

Analytic functions; Cauchy-Riemann equations; Cauchy’s integral theorem and integral formula; Taylor and Laurent series.

**Probability and Statistics**

Definitions of probability, sampling theorems, conditional probability; mean, median, mode and standard deviation; random variables, binomial, Poisson and normal distributions.

**Numerical Method**

Numerical solution of the linear and non-linear algebraic equation; single and multi-step methods for differential equations; integration by trapezoidal and Simpson’s rules.

## GATE IE Syllabus

The GATE Syllabus for IE disciplines is given below, where it is used here for covering all the topics that require for qualifying the GATE Exam are given here. Once before preparing for your GATE Exam go through the Syllabus of your department.

### Engineering Mathematics

**Linear Algebra**

Matrix Algebra, Systems of linear equations, Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors.

**Calculus**

Mean value theorems, Theorems of integral calculus, Evaluation of definite and improper integrals, Partial Derivatives, Maxima and minima, Multiple integrals, Fourier series. Vector identities, Directional derivatives, Line, Surface and Volume integrals, Stokes, Gauss and Green’s theorems.

**Differential equations**

First order equation (linear and nonlinear), higher order linear differential equations with constant coefficients, method of variation of parameters, Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations, initial and boundary value problems, a solution of partial differential equations: variable separable method.

**Analysis of complex variables**

Analytic functions, Cauchy’s integral formula and integral theorem, Taylor’s and Laurent’ series, Residue theorem, a solution of integrals.

**Probability and Statistics**

Sampling theorems, random variables, conditional probability, mean, median, mode and standard deviation, discrete and continuous distributions: normal, Poisson and binomial distributions.

**Numerical Methods**

Matrix inversion, iterative methods for solving differential equations, numerical integration, solutions of non-linear algebraic equations, regression and correlation analysis.

### Instrumentation Engineering

**Electrical Circuits**

Voltage and current sources: independent, dependent, ideal and practical; v-i relationships of resistor, inductor, mutual inductor and capacitor; transient analysis of RLC circuits with dc excitation. Kirchoff’s laws, mesh and nodal analysis, superposition, Thevenin, Norton, maximum power transfer and reciprocity theorems. Peak-, average- and RMS values of ac quantities; apparent-, active- and reactive powers; phasor analysis, impedance and admittance; series and parallel resonance, locus diagrams, a realization of basic filters with R, L and C elements. One-port and two-port networks, driving point impedance and admittance, open-, and short circuit parameters.

**Signals and Systems**

Periodic, aperiodic and impulse signals; Laplace, Fourier and z-transforms; transfer function, the frequency response of first and second order linear time-invariant systems, the impulse response of systems; convolution, correlation. Discrete time system: impulse response, frequency response, pulse transfer function; DFT and FFT; basics of IIR and FIR filters.

**Control Systems**

Feedback principles, signal flow graphs, transient response, steady-state-errors, Routh and Nyquist criteria, Bode plot, phase and gain margins, root loci, design of lead, lag and lead-lag compensators, state-space representation of systems; on-off, P, P-I, P-I-D, cascade, feedforward, and ratio controllers time-delay systems; mechanical, hydraulic and pneumatic system components, synchro pair, servo and stepper motors, servo valves.

**Analog Electronics**

Characteristic and application of the diode, Zener diode, BJT and MOSFET; small signal analysis of transistor circuits, feedback amplifiers. Characteristics of operational amplifiers; applications of opamps: difference amplifier, adder, subtractor, integrator, differentiator, instrumentation amplifier, precision rectifier, active filters and other circuits. Oscillators, signal generators, voltage controlled oscillators and phase locked loop.

**Digital Electronics**

Combinational logic circuits, minimization of Boolean functions. IC families: TTL and CMOS. Arithmetic circuits, comparators, Schmitt trigger, multi-vibrators, sequential circuits, flip-flops, shift registers, timers and counters; sample-and-hold circuit, multiplexer, analogue-to-digital

(successive approximation, integrating, flash and sigma-delta) And digital-to-analogue converters (weighted R, R-2R ladder and current steering logic). Characteristics of ADC and DAC (resolution, quantization, significant bits, conversion/settling time); basics of number systems, 8-bit microprocessor and microcontroller: applications, memory and input-output interfacing; basics of data acquisition systems.

**Measurements**

SI units, systematic and the random errors in measurement, propagation of errors. PMMC, expression of uncertainty – accuracy and precision index, MI and dynamometer type instruments; bridges for measurement of R, L and C, Q-meter. Measurement of voltage, current and power in single and three phase circuits; dc potentiometer; ac and DC probes; true RMS meters, voltage and current scaling, instrument transformers, timer/counter, time, phase and frequency measurements, digital voltmeter, digital multimeter; oscilloscope, shielding and grounding.

**Sensors and Industrial Instrumentation**

Resistive-, capacitive-, inductive-, piezoelectric-, Hall effect sensors and associated signal conditioning circuits; transducers for industrial instrumentation: displacement (linear and angular), velocity, acceleration, force, torque, vibration, shock, pressure (including low pressure), flow (differential pressure, variable area, electromagnetic, ultrasonic, turbine and open channel flow meters) temperature (thermocouple, bolometer, RTD (3/4 wire), thermistor, pyrometer and semiconductor); liquid level, pH, conductivity and viscosity measurement.

**Communication and Optical Instrumentation**

Amplitude- and frequency modulation and demodulation; frequency and time division multiplexing, amplitude-, phase-, frequency-, pulse shift keying for digital modulation; Shannon’s sampling theorem, pulse code modulation; optical sources and detectors: LED, laser, photo-diode, light dependent resistor and their characteristics; interferometer: applications in metrology; basics of fiber optic sensing.

### Topics:

Thank you for reading the post.

### Education

# GATE Exam Preparation | Books, App & Coaching Centers

GATE Exam Preparation is one of the **biggest question**s that asked by all the candidates who appear for **GATE Exam**. Sometimes you may follow some of the rigid timetables and heavy learning methods that offered other advice from their experiences. All the advice that provides for the exam is totally zero all the efforts and determination is entirely depends upon the students. They have to **set the path** by themselves and see which is a convenient way for the success follow that way to qualify in the GATE exam. GATE exam is an **online examination**, with that, the level of competition has been increasing every year. The main part of the GATE Exam Preparation is **hard work** and dedication these things has to be put on your exam, with that the **proper strategy** and plan is much required for your preparation. Here we offer you some strategy and paths to crack the GATE exam.

The steps or methods to qualify for your GATE Exam

- Have to get complete information about GATE Exam
- Know the
**Syllabus**&**Weightage**of each subject - Choose Good Books & Study Materials for GATE preparation
- Tips to study smartly during preparation
- Plan your GATE preparation
- Prepare the
**study plan**to complete the GATE Exam - Gate exam
**Revision Plan** - Mock Tests and Practice Tests
- Revision,
**Test Series**and Practice at the last stage - Last minute strategy for GATE Exam

## GATE Exam Preparation – Exam Books

Most of the candidates who appear for the** GATE Exam** have this question. The **GATE Exam Syllabus** is the one of the vast and encompasses the four years that you study for under-graduation, with that most of the GATE candidates search for the best books to read for GATE. The **Careers360** has interviewed most of the GATE toppers and put the common questions to them that is what are all the books that you used for Preparing GATE Exam. Then the list of books where given here for your preparation for each discipline.

### GATE Exam Books for Civil

**Engineering Mathematics**

- Discrete Mathematics and Its Applications by Kenneth Rosen
- Higher Engineering mathematics by B.S. Grewal
- Advanced Engineering Mathematics by Erwin Kreyszig

**Structural Engineering**

- Theory of Structure by CK Wang, S. Rammamrutham, L.S. Negi & Jangit
- Theory of Elasticity by Timoshenko & Gere
- Theory of Structure by Wilbur & Norris
- The strength of Materials/Mechanics of Structure by Gare & Timoshenko,
- E. Popove, L. Singer,
- B.C. Punamia, Rammamrutham

**Geotechnical Engineering**

- Soil Mechanics by Gopal Ranjan & Rao, Venkat Ramaiah, S. K. Garg,
- B.C. Punamia, V N S Murthy

**Water Resources Engineering**

- Water Resources by S K Garg
- Water and Waste Water by SK Garg 1 and 2
- Fluid Mechanics- RK Bansal and Fox and Richard

**Transportation Engineering**

- Transportation by Justo Khanna

**Environmental engineering**

- Environmental Engineering by S. K. Garg Part I & Part II
- Waste Water Engineering by B. C. Punamia Part I & Part II

**Geomatics Engineering**

- Surveying (vol. 1,2,3) by B.C.Punia, Ashok Jain, Arun Jain

### GATE Exam Books for Computer Science Engineering & Information Technology

**Engineering Mathematics**

- Discrete Mathematics and Its Applications by Kenneth Rosen
- Higher Engineering mathematics by B.S. Grewal
- Advanced Engineering Mathematics by Erwin Kreyszig

**Digital Logic**

- Digital Design by Morris Mano
- Digital Electronics by S. Salivahanan & S. Arivazhagan

**Computer Organization and Architecture**

- Computer Architecture – A Quantitative Approach by Hennessy and Patterson
- Computer Organization and Embedded systems by Carl Hamacher

**Programming and Data Structures**

- The C Programming language by Dennis Richie
- Classic Data Structures by Debasis Samanta

**Algorithms**

- Introduction to Algorithms by CormenData Structures & Algorithms by R.S. Salaria

**Theory of Computation**

- An Introduction to Formal Languages and Automata by Peter Linz
- NPTEL lectures by Kamala Krithivasan

**Compiler Design**

- Compilers: Principles, Techniques and Tools by Aho & Ullman
- Compiler Design in C by Allen I Holub

**Operating System**

- Operating System Concepts by Galvin
- Modern Operating System by Andrew Tanenbaum
- Operating Systems by Stallings

**Databases**

- Database System Concepts by Henry. F. Korth
- Normalization and indexing by Shamkant B. Navathe

**Computer Networks**

- Computer Networking: A Top-Down Approach
- Data Communications and Networking by Kurose & Ross and Behrouz A. Forouzan
- Computer Networks by Peterson & Davie

### GATE Exam Books for Mechanical Engineering

**Design of Machine Elements**

- Machine design – V.B. Bhandari

**Engineering Mechanics**

- Engineering Mechanics by Bhavikatti
- Engineering Mechanics by Beer and Johnston,
- Engineering Mechanics by R K Rajput

**Fluid Mechanics**

- Fluid Mechanics by R K Bansal
- Fluid & Hydraulics- Modi and Seth

**Heat Transfer**

- Heat and Mass Transfer by J P Hollman and R C Sachdeva
- Heat Transfer by Cengel and Holman

**Industrial Engineering**

- Industrial Engineering by O P Khanna, Buffa and Sarin

**Manufacturing Engineering**

- Production Technology: Manufacturing Processes, Technology and Automation by R.K. Jain

**Strength of Materials**

- The strength of Materials – Gere & Timoshenko

**Thermal Science**

- Engineering Thermodynamics by P.K. Nag

**Thermo Dynamics**

- Engineering Thermodynamics by PK Nag and Rajput
- Thermodynamics by Cengel.

**Theory of Machines**

- Theory of machines by Ratan

**Vibrations**

- Mechanical Vibration by Grover

### GATE Exam Books for Electronics & Communication

**Engineering Mathematics**

- Higher Engineering Mathematics – Dr BS Grewal
- Engineering Mathematics – Erwin Kreyszig
- Advanced Engineering Mathematics – Dr HK Dass
- Advanced Engineering Mathematics by R. K. Jain, S. R. K. Iyengar

**General Aptitude**

- Quantitative Aptitude – R. S. Agarwal
- Logical Reasoning – R. S. Agarwal
- Objective English – Hari Mohan Prasad
- Quantitative Aptitude by CAT by Arun Sharma

**Network Theory**

- Network Theory by Alexander Sadiku
- Circuit Theory by A.Chakraborty
- Network Analysis by Van Valkenburg
- Engineering Circuit Analysis – Hayt & Kammerly
- Linear Circuit Analysis- De Carlo/Lin

**Electronic Devices**

- Integrated Electronics:- Jacob Millman & Christos C. Halkias
- Solid State electronic Devices- Ben Streetman and Sanjay Banerjee
- Semiconductor devices – David Neamen
- Semiconductor devices-S. M. Sze
- DC Analysis of MOS Transistor-Tsivid

**Analog Circuits**

- Micro Electronics circuit – Sedra & Smith
- Linear ICs – Gaekwad
- Analog Electronics, Electronics devices and circuits – Donald A Neaman
- Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory by Robert L Boylestad & Nashelsky
- Pulse and Digital Electronics by Millman and Taub

**Digital Circuits**

- Digital Electronics – Morris Mano
- Microprocessor Architecture, Programming and Application with the 8085 – Ramesh Gaonker
- Digital Electronic Principles and applications by Ronald J. Toccii, Pearson Publications
- Digital circuits and design by Salivahanan
- Fundamentals of digital systems by Anandkumar.

**System & Signal**

- Signals & Systems By Alan V. Oppenheim
- Modern digital and analogue Communications system by BP Lathi
- Digital Signal Processing by S.K Mitra
- Signals & System – Oppenheim & Schafer
- Signals & System – Proakis
- Signals & System – Schaum Series-H.P. Hsu

**Control System**

- Automatic Control Systems – Benjamin C Kuo
- Modern Control System – Katsuhiko Ogata
- Control Systems Engineering by Norman Nise
- Control Systems by Nagarath and GopalNPTEL Video lectures by M. Gopal

**Communications**

- Analog and Digital Communication System by Simon Haykin
- The principle of Communication System by Taub& Schillings
- Modern digital and analogue Communications system by BP Lathi
- Electronic Communication Systems by Kennedy and Davis (just the Noise chapter)

**Electro-Magnetics**

- Elements of Electromagnetics by Matthew N.O. Sadiku Network lines and fields by J.D Ryder (Transmission lines part)
- Electromagnetic waves and Radiating Systems by Jordon and ballmain Antenna Theory by Balanis NPTEL Lectures by Prof. R. Shevgaonkar
- Engineering Electromagnetics-William Hayt
- Schaum’s Outline of Electromagnetics -Joseph A Edminister
- Antenna And Wave Propagation-KD Prasad

**MCQ books**

- Gate ECE by R.K Kanodia

### GATE Exam Books for Electrical Engineering

**Engineering Mathematics**

- Advanced Engineering Mathematics by E.Kreyszig

**Electric Circuits**

- Transient Analysis Of Electric Power Circuits by Arieh L Shenkman
- Circuit Theory: Analysis & Synthesis by Abhijit Chakrabarti

**Electromagnetic Fields**

- Elements of Electromagnetics by Mathew N. O. SADIKU
- Engineering Electromagnetics by William H. Hayt

**Signals and Systems**

- Signals and Systems by Oppenheim and Wilsky
- Signals and Systems by Nagoor Kani

**Electrical Machines**

- Electrical Machinery by P.S Bimbhra

**Power Systems**

- Power Systems Engineering by Nagrath and Kothari
- Power Systems by JB Gupta & CL Wadhwa

**Control Systems**

- Control Systems Engineering by Nagrath and Gopal

**Electrical and Electronic Measurements**

- Electrical and Electronic Measurement and Instrumentation by AK Sawhney

**Analog and Digital Electronic**

- Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory by Boylestad
- Digital Design by M.Morris Mano
- Integrated Electronics: Analog And Digital Circuits And Systems by Christos C. Halkias, Chetan D. Parikh Jacob Millman

**Power Electronics**

- Power Electronics by MH Rashid
- Power Electronics by P.S.Bimbhra

## GATE Exam Preparation – Coaching Centers in Chennai

GATE Exam is not like the exams that regularly conducted in the** engineering colleges**, for this exam you need to have structure and in-depth preparation, so we offer you an idea that better go to any of experts and learn from them. To avoid all these inconveniences many **GATE Exam Coaching Centers** has been open in the cities in that some of the top coaching centres are listed below just visit those sites and check whether those centres are suitable for you. Then they will help you to solve all the **complex problems** and teach you the important topics for your examination. A good coaching centre will help you to success in the GATE Exam by offering you excellent coaching.

The list of top GATE Exam Coaching Centers in Chennai is listed below.

**1.GATEFORUM**

No.1/1 first floor, emelem complex, mahalingapuram, mainroad near aiyppa temple, Chennai

Contact no.: 044-42144432

Visit the site for more details **GATEFORUM**

**2.The GATE Academy**

No 1/16, second floor, Pinjala Subramaniam, near KPN travels India Private Limited, Chennai

Contact No.: 044 4212 7775

Visit the site for more details **The GATE Academy**

**3.GATE zone**

11-A, old rosery school campus, no. 1st St. addambakkam, Shanti Nagar, Chennai

Contact no.: 0980 40 587794

Visit the site for more details **GATE Zone**

**4.T.I.M.E**

Durgabai, Deshmukh Road, Chennai, Tamil Nadu

Visit the site for more details **T.I.M.E**

**5.Vani Institute**

Office no. 19/9, near Canara bank, Burkitt Road, T. Nagar, Chennai

Contact No.: 044-24345294.

Visit the site for more details **Vani Institute**

## GATE Exam APP

GATE Exam App is one of the **excellent apps** for the candidate who was preparing for the **GATE Exams**. With the help of this application, you can easily prepare for your exam playfully without stress. This application is applicable for **MECH**, **EEE**,** ECE**, **CIVIL**, **CSE** and more, with that the app developed with Practice Quizzes, Video Lectures, Previous Year Question Papers, Mock Tests examination, past year papers, Previous Year Questions with Solutions, Multiple Choice Questions(MCQs), Test series shortcuts and tricks for the preparation of technical exams. Then this offline application is designed by Gate Gurus and EduRev for Electrical, Mech, Civil, Electronic departments. Here they offer you the** materials for studying**, Short Notes of all subjects, English vocabulary, Question BANK, Quiz, previous year papers Online Tests, Topic Wise Quizzes, Daily insights, Previous year **question papers** and Important tips & tricks for Entrance Examination. It will be quite helpful for the people who prepare for the world of technical Exam. The GATE Exam is derived from the EduRev application, with that this app has won the Best App Award in 2017 by Google.

The special features of the application are

- Social Learning Network
- In-Depth Analysis
- Free Learning App
- Marketplace of Courses
- Large Network of Teachers

### Topics:

This application has covered the** entire syllabus** of all the subjects that given above, with the help of this app you can practice all your subjects and aptitudes and get success in your GATE Exam.

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