Silvanus was a Roman protective deity of woods and fields. As protector of forests named Sylvestris Deus, he notably presided over farms and delighted in trees growing wild. He also represented as a God of Forest watching over the fields and husbandmen, protecting, in particular, the boundaries of areas. Likewise named Etruscan deity Selvans may be a borrowing of Silvanus, or not even related in origin. Silvanus is described as the god protecting the flocks of cattle, warding off wolves, and raising their fertility.
Worship of Silvanus
The sacrifices allowed to Silvanus consisted of grapes, ears of grain, milk, meat, wine, and pigs. In Cato’s De Agricultura leaving the space to Mars Silvanus to describe, by ensuring the health of cattle. It declared there that his combined with agriculture related to only the labor performed by men, and that female suspended from his worship. Compare Bona Dea for a Roman God from whose worship people excluded. Virgil indicates that in the earliest times the Tyrrhenian Pelasgians had dedicated a grove and a festival to Silvanus.
Dolabella, an agricultural engineer of whom only a few pages are known, says that Silvanus was the first to set up stones to indicate the borders of fields and that every estate had three Silvani, they are a Silvanus Domesticus, Agrestis, Orientalis. Silvanus Domesticus is an inscription called Silvanus Larum and Silvanus Sanctus Sacer Larum. As well as a Silvanus Agrestis also called Salutaris who was Revered by caretakers, and a Silvanus Orientalis, that is, the God leading over the point at which an estate begins.
Cedars of God and His History
The Cedars of God is one of the last traces of the extensive forests of the Lebanon cedar, which once thrived across Mount Lebanon in ancient times. Their timber employed by the Phoenicians, Israelites, Egyptians, Assyrians, Babylonians, Persians, Romans, and Turks. Egyptians prized the wood for shipbuilding is also God of Forest; the Ottoman Empire used the cedars in railway construction. It stated that a battle happened between the demigods and the humans over the beautiful and sacred forest of Cedar trees near southern Mesopotamia. This forest, protected at once by the Sumerian god Enlil, was wholly stripped of its trees when humans opened its grounds 4700 years ago, after winning the war against the defenders of the forest, the demigods. The story told that Gilgamesh used cedar wood to build the city.
Over the eras, cedar wood employed by the Phoenicians, Egyptians, Assyrians, Israelites, Babylonians, Persians, Romans and Turks. The Phoenicians used the Cedars for their trade fleets. They needed timbers for their ships and the Cedar Woods made them the “first sea-trading nation in the world.” The Egyptians practiced cedar resin for the mummification process and the cedar wood for some of “their first hieroglyph bearing rolls of papyrus.”
In the Bible, Solomon obtained cedar timber to build the Temple in Jerusalem. Emperor Hadrian declared these forests as an imperial domain, and destruction of the cedar forests momentarily halted. Firm for the biblical “cedars of God” goes back to 1876, when a high stone wall enclosed the 102-hectare Grove, paid for by Queen Victoria, to protect saplings from browsing by goats. Nevertheless, during World War I, British troops did cedar to build railroads.
Time, along with the exploitation of the Cedars’ wood, has led to a decrease in the many of cedar trees in Lebanon. Though, Lebanon is widely recognized for its cedar tree history, as they are the emblem of the country and the type of the Lebanese flag. The remaining trees survive in mountainous areas, where they are the dominant tree species. It is the case on the slopes of Mount Makmel that tower over the Kadisha Valley, Cedars of God found at an altitude of more than 2,000 meters (6,600 ft). Four trees have attained a height of 35 meters (115 ft), with their trunks reaching 12–14 meters (39–46 ft).`
- “Open thy doors, O Lebanon, that the fire may devour thy cedars. Howl, fir tree; for the cedar is fallen; because the mighty are spoiled: howl, O ye oaks of Bashan; for the forest of the vintage is come down.”
- “He moves his tail like a cedar; The sinews of his thighs are tightly knit.”
- “The priest shall take cedarwood and hyssop and scarlet stuff, and cast them into the midst of the burning of the heifer.”
- “The voice of the Lord breaks the cedars; the Lord breaks in pieces the cedars of Lebanon.”
- “The righteous flourish like the palm tree and grow like the cedar in Lebanon.”
- “I will put in the wilderness the cedar, the acacia, the myrtle, and the olive.”
- “Behold, I will liken you to a cedar in Lebanon, with fair branches and forest shade.”
- “I destroyed the Amorite before them, whose height was like the height of the cedars.”
- “The trees of the Lord have watered abundantly, the cedars of Lebanon that he planted.”
[King Solomon made] cedar as plentiful as the sycamore-fig trees in the foothills.
Her festival, the Floralia, was taken between April 28 and May 3 and symbolized the renewal of the cycle of life, and flowers. The festival first instituted in 240 B.C.E; she was given another temple in 238 B.C.E. At the festival, with the men decorated in flowers, and the women wearing forbidden gay costumes, five days of forces and Mimes enacted that ithyphallic, and combining nudity when called followed by the sixth day of the hunting of goats and hares. On May 23 another Rose festival held in her honor.
Flora’s Greek similar was Chloris, who was a nymph. Flora was married to Favonius, the Wind God called as Zephyr, and her companion was Hercules. Flora gained more prominence in the neo-pagan revival of Antiquity among Renaissance humanists than she had ever enjoyed in ancient Rome.