Coral Tree is a critically endangered species of Erythrina which comes under the genus of flowering plants in Pea family, Fabaceae. These plants are found in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. The name Coral Tree defines the collective terms of horticulture plants and also called a Flame tree in colloquial language. Most of the Erythrina species have bright red colour flowers and other species of these plants have orange, yellow, salmon, green and white-coloured flowers. The attractive colour polymorphism is also found in other species of these plants like Erythrina lysistemon and Erythrina caffra. It is one of the highly used forage trees for small ruminants as fodder in India. These plants are mostly used for hedgerow and windbreak. Coral Tree can grow up to 18-25 m high and width will be around 5-8 cm. It has upturned flowers that prevent capillary flow. The cylindrical pod fruits consist of seeds, glabrescent and indehiscent and it will around 15 cm long. The Root tubers of Erythrina species are being a traditional food for Aborigines of the Northern Territory of Australia.
Scientific name: Erythrina
Higher classification: Phaseoleae
Height: 18-25 m
Spread: 5-8 cm
Related Aristolochia Grandiflora
Species of Erythrina (Coral Tree)
Fabaceae family has more than 130 species, which can be found in regions of Southeast Asia, Indian Ocean, East Africa, South-East Asia, Northern Australia as well as in the Pacific Islands. Here we listed some species of Coral Tree.
- Erythrina abyssinica Lam. ex DC. (East Africa)
- Erythrina americana Mill. – Colorín, Tzompāmitl(Mexico)
- Erythrina ankaranensis Du Puy & Labat (Madagascar)
- Erythrina atitlanensis Krukoff & Barneby
- Erythrina berteroana Urb.
- Erythrina burana Chiov. (Ethiopia)
- Erythrina caffra Thunb. – Coastal coral tree (Southeastern Africa)
- Erythrina corallodendron L. (Hispaniola, Jamaica)
- Erythrina coralloides D.C. – Flame coral tree, naked coral tree (Arizona in the United States, Mexico)
- Erythrina crista-galli L. – Cockspur coral tree, ceibo, seíbo, bucaré (Argentina, Uruguay, Brazil, Paraguay)
- Erythrina decora Harms
- Erythrina edulis Micheli – Basul (Andes)
- Erythrina eggersii Krukoff & Moldenke – Cock’s-spur, espuela de gallo, piñón espinoso (United States Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico)
- Erythrina elenae Howard & Briggs (Cuba)
- Erythrina euodiphylla Hassk. ex Backh. (Indonesia)
- Erythrina falcata Benth. – Brazilian coral tree (Brazil)
- Erythrina flabelliformis Kearney
- Erythrina fusca Lour. – Purple coral tree, bois immortelle, bucaré anauco, bucayo, gallito (Pantropical)
- Erythrina haerdii Verdc. (Tanzania)
- Erythrina hazomboay Du Puy & Labat (Madagascar)
- Erythrina herbacea L. – Coral bean, Cherokee bean, red cardinal, cardinal spear (Southeastern United States, Northeastern Mexico)
- Erythrina humeana Spreng. – Natal coral tree, dwarf coral tree, dwarf kaffirboom, dwarf erythrina (South Africa)
- Erythrina lanceolata Standl.
- Erythrina latissima E.Mey.
- Erythrina lysistemon Hutch. – Common coral tree, Transvaal kaffirboom, lucky bean tree (South Africa)
- Erythrina madagascariensis Du Puy & Labat (Madagascar)
- Erythrina megistophylla (Ecuador)
- Erythrina mexicana (Mexico)
- Erythrina mulungu Diels Mart. – Mulungu (Brazil)
- Erythrina perrieri R.Viguier (Madagascar)
- Erythrina poeppigiana (Walp.) O.F.Cook – bucare ceibo
- Erythrina polychaeta Harms (Ecuador)
- Erythrina rubrinervia Kunth
- Erythrina sacleuxii Hua (Kenya, Tanzania)
- Erythrina sandwicensis O.Deg. – Wiliwili (Hawaii)
- Erythrina schimpffii Diels (Ecuador)
- Erythrina schliebenii Harms
- Erythrina senegalensis DC.
- Erythrina speciosa Andrews (Brazil)
- Erythrina stricta Roxb. – Mandara (Southeast Asia)
- Erythrina suberosa Roxb.
- Erythrina subumbrans Miq.
- Erythrina tahitensis Nadeaud (Tahiti)
- Erythrina tholloniana
- Erythrina tuxtlana Krukoff & Barneby (Mexico)
- Erythrina variegata L. – Indian coral tree, tiger’s claw, sunshine tree, roluos tree (Cambodia), deigo (Okinawa), drala (Fiji), madar (Bangladesh), man da ra ba (Tibet), thong lang (Thailand), vông nem (Vietnam)
- Erythrina velutina Willd. (Caribbean, South America, Galápagos Islands)
- Erythrina vespertilio Benth. – Bat’s wing coral tree, grey corkwood, “bean tree” (Australia)
- Erythrina zeyheri Harv. – Ploughbreaker
- Butea monosperma (Lam.) Taub. (as E. monosperma Lam.)
- Piscidia piscipula (L.) Sarg (as E. piscipula L.)
- Erythrina ×bidwillii Lindl.
- Erythrina ×sykesii Barneby & Krukoff
Interesting Facts about Coral Tree
- In 2008, Coral Tree is found to be extinct. While tracking the forest, it came to know that people have slashed these trees for inhabitation.
- Later in 2012, a small population of Coral trees around 50 were found in a small area of Tanzania.
- The home species of this plant comes from South Africa. Then it distributed to various places in the world.
- Humans used these plants for various purposes like medical, traditional, decorative, culinary uses and more.
- The herbal content of these plants used to cure some disorders in the body such as cholesterol, Improve digestive strength, inflammations, anorexia, fever, obesity, liver disorders, purgative, women problems and more.
- In the year 1967, the flower of this species was officially selected as the flower of Okinawa Prefecture.
- The leaves of Coral Tree are used to wrap the fermented meat in Vietnam.
- In Siddha medicines, these species are mainly used to cure menstrual disorders and fissures at the penis tip.
- Erythrina is also used as a live support tree for some plants like black pepper, betel leaf, jasmine, grapes, and yams. Along with this, it also works as a shade tree for coffee and cocoa.
- The seeds of these plants are poisonous when if it gets ingested.
Coral Tree Images
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